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The state of Idaho was admitted into the Union on July 3, 1890. Its capital is Boise, and its only nickname is the Gem State. It was one of the last of the contiguous states to be explored by Europeans, with the first exploration having been by the Lewis and Clark expedition, which found itself in what is not Idaho in August of 1805. The abundance of Indians in the region proved to be inviting to those who were involved with missions. In 1836, Rev. Henry Spalding founded a Protestant mission among the Nez Perce near present-day Lewiston, Idaho. He also established Idaho’s first school, developed the first irrigation system there, grew the first Idaho potatoes, and printed the first book published in the Northwest. A Catholic mission was established on the banks of the St. Joe River in 1842. In 1843, the Provisional Government of Oregon was established, which set up a legal system and a common defense of the pioneers who were settling in the region, which was formerly inhabited by the numerous Indian nations who were from there. One of the points enumerated in its preamble was that the settlers would agree to the laws within the Organic Laws of Oregon only “until such time as the United States of America extend their jurisdiction over us.” In 1855, 27 missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints founded Fort Lemhi, named for King Lemhi, who was a king mentioned in the Book of Mormon who organized an expedition lasting 22 days, which was the same amount of time it took the 27 to reach Idaho. Soon, there were 200 Mormons there, farming, raising cattle and horses, and building, and at least three missionaries married Shosone wives. Local Indians stole their cattle and horses, and killed some of the Mormons in early 1858, and the fort was abandoned in February of that year. Fort Lemhi was re-settled by miners in 1862.

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