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The seat of Custer County, South Dakota is the city of Custer. It is the oldest town to have been established by people of European descent in the Black Hills, having been founded in 1875. Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer led the 7th Cavalry during the Black Hills Expedition, which found gold there in 1874. This discovery prompted the Black Hills Gold Rush. The Ogalala Sioux inhabited the area, and forced them to give their land to the government. In 1877, land was open for purchase, and in 1875, the prospectors named the settlement Stonewall, in honor of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson. It was renamed Custer, and most of the gold-boomers left when word was circulated that there were much larger gold strikes in Deadwood Gulch.

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