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The town of Mount Olive is in both Duplin and Wayne Counties. In 1830 the state legislature granted a charter to the Wilmington & Raleigh Railroad running north from Wilmington to Weldon. Construction ended in 1840. In 1838, a black landowner named Adam Winn, sold 19 acres of his land to the railroad, and this land would one day become South Center Street. On May 20, 1861, the State of North Carolina seceded from the Union, and on March 14, 1862 federal troops raided Mount Olive, damaging buildings, tracks, and railroad cars. On April 26, 1865, General Joseph Johnston signed the formal surrender of all Confederate troops in North and South Carolina, and on July 4, 1868, North Carolina was readmitted into the Union. In 1870, the Town of Mount Olive was incorporated.

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