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Marlboro Township, New Jersey is situated in Monmouth County. The name of the township is because of the marl beds which are found in the area. Marl, or marlstone, is a calcium carbonate, a life-rich mud which contains silt and clay. Marl was used by farmers as soil before the commercial fertilizers became available. The first inhabitants of the area were the Lenni Lenape Native Americans, who were there at least 1,000 years before the Europeans arrived. At the very dawn of the 18th century, the first settlers arrived, led by a Quaker missionary named George Keith, who had been the Surveyor-General of the Province of East Jersey. He founded a town which they named Topanemus on land he was given for being Surveyor-General. Additionally, they built a cemetery and a meetinghouse where they held the first meeting on October 10, 1702. The first industry of Marlboro was marl, which they exported to New York and other parts of the fledgling country. There were numerous skirmishes in Marlboro during the Revolutionary War. The section of town known as Pleasant Valley was frequently raided throughout the war by the British Army for the food and livestock there. Marlboro was established on February 17, 1848, formed from pieces of adjacent Freehold Township. During that time, two spellings of the township were used, interchangeably: Marlboro and Marlborough.

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