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Hillsborough Township, New Jersey is located in Somerset County. In 1771 it was created by royal charter from parts of Western precinct, and in 1798, parts of Millstone and Manville were taken to create the post-Revolutionary War township, and it became one of New Jersey's original group of 104 townships. There are two schools of thought as to where the name of the township originated. The first is that it came from an earlier name of "Hillsbury." The second school of thought posits that it was named in honor of British politician and former Secretary of State for the Colonies Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire, Earl of Hillsborough. Hillsborough is along the path which General George Washington and his troops traveled on their way from the Battle of Princeton to the winter quarters in Morristown.

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