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The city of Keene, New Hampshire is the county seat of Cheshire County. The land which is now Keene was granted as "Upper Ashuelot" by Colonial Governor Jonathan Belcher in 1735. He granted the land to 63 settlers who paid five pounds apiece to have their properties assigned by lottery. Upper Ashuelot was set to be a fort town which was meant to protect the Province of Massachusetts Bay while the French and Indian Wars were going on and in its aftermath.In 1741, the boundary between New Hampshire and Massachusetts was fixed, Upper Ashuelot became part of New Hampshire. During King George's War, in 1747, Upper Ashuelot was beset by Indians, causing the colonists to flee as the village burned. They returned after the war in 1749 to rebuild their home. Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth regranted the town to those who lived there in 1753 and renamed it Keene, in honor of English minister to Spain Sir Benjamin Keene. There were numerous farms in Keene, and tanneries, gristmills, and sawmills dotted the town. The railroad came through town in 1848, which sparked manufacturing. Keene was then a manufacturing hub for such things as chairs, doors, textiles, saddles, glass, shoes, shoes, carriages, and sleighs. a foundry and brickyard were built, and that same year, Keene was incorporated as a city.

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